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大伸缩比连续型机械臂构型研究与精度分析
Alternative TitleConfiguration research and accuracy analysis of continuous manipulator with large telescopic ratio
谢磊超
Department空间自动化技术研究室
Thesis Advisor刘玉旺
Keyword外肢体 连续型机械臂 剪叉机构 大伸缩变形 末端精度分析
Pages96页
Degree Discipline机械工程
Degree Name专业学位硕士
2021-05-21
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract与人体高度融合的机器人由能力增强式外骨骼向能力拓展式外肢体方向发展,穿戴式连续型机械臂是一种与人体共融度更高的新型外肢体,可协助人体实现复杂场景中的特种任务作业。穿戴式连续型机械臂存在自重比低、长度伸缩比小和精度低等难题。本文从仿生学入手将剪叉机构原理运用到连续型机械臂设计过程中,提出一种基于剪叉机构的大伸缩比、大负载连续型机械臂构型。通过对剪叉机构原理分析以及结构拓扑优化,实现了机械臂在运动过程中的弯曲变化以及大范围收缩功能。其主体部分通过多连杆耦合单元串联构成,并设计自锁机构,在保证机械臂整体刚度的同时,达到大负载和轻质化设计的目标。同时,开展机械臂精准指向研究,对机械臂的静误差和动误差进行分析,进而减少运动过程中的定位误差,提升机械臂的末端定位精度。本文开展的主要研究工作如下:首先,开展连续型机械臂构型研究,确定机械臂的主体结构。开展剪叉机构的拓扑形态演化研究,确定连续型机械臂主体结构。臂的主体伸缩部分通过剪叉机构的耦合串联实现运动,设计刚度自锁机构,提高系统刚度和机械臂负载能力。将驱动源布置在底座部分,实现机械臂两自由度旋转。根据任务需要搭建末端两自由度平台,实现末端两自由度运动。经过对各关节形态拓扑优化,减轻结构重量,达到轻质化设计的要求,实现连续型机械臂400%的大伸缩比变形。其次,建立连续型机械臂运动学模型并进行可视化仿真验证。对各关节参数与机械臂末端位置之间的关系进行分析,通过离散化处理,由D-H算法求得关节的运动学模型。基于机械臂运动学解算,搭建机械臂可视化仿真平台,对机械臂各关节参数进行实时监控,为机械臂精准控制及实验研究提供参考。随后,开展机械臂末端误差分析。将整体机械臂进行离散化处理,由误差矩阵法思想求得各单元的误差模型,得到杆件加工误差、间隙误差等因素对单元误差的影响。基于微小位移合成法搭建整体误差模型,完成机械臂末端定位误差的静误差分析,并求得综合误差。构件拟合函数,对机械臂输入参数进行补偿。基于动力学方程,考虑杆件在运动过程中因柔性变形引起的误差,搭建模型的刚柔耦合模型,求得机械臂的杆件柔性变形对末端位置误差的影响,并通过虚拟样机模型分析对模型进行仿真验证。最后,搭建机械臂样机实验平台并开展验证实验。包括设计机械臂整体控制系统,编写驱动和控制程序,实现机械臂仿真控制平台的设计。完成样机装配,搭建测试平台并开展精度测试实验,采集实验过程中实验数据,并与理论仿真结果与软件模拟仿真结果进行对比分析。实验结果验证了误差模型的正确性,提高了机械臂末端定位精度。
Other AbstractThe robot highly integrated with the human body develops from the ability enhanced exoskeleton to the ability expanded exolimb. The wearable continuous manipulator is a new type of exolimb with higher degree of integration with the human body, which can assist the human body to achieve special tasks in complex scenes. The wearable continuous manipulator has the problems of low dead weight ratio, small length expansion ratio and low precision. Starting from bionics, this paper applies the principle of scissor mechanism to the design process of continuous manipulator, and puts forward a kind of continuous manipulator configuration with large expansion ratio and large load based on scissor mechanism. Through the analysis of the principle of the scissor mechanism and the optimization of the structure topology, the bending change and large-scale contraction function of the manipulator in the process of movement are realized. The main part of the manipulator is composed of multi link coupling units in series, and a self-locking mechanism is designed to ensure the overall stiffness of the manipulator and achieve the goal of large load and lightweight design. At the same time, the research on precise pointing of the manipulator is carried out to analyze the static error and dynamic error of the manipulator, so as to reduce the positioning error in the process of motion and improve the end positioning accuracy of the manipulator. The main research work of this paper is as follows: Firstly, the configuration of the continuous manipulator is studied to determine the main structure of the manipulator. The topological evolution of the scissor mechanism is studied and the main structure of the continuous manipulator is determined. The main telescopic part of the arm moves through the coupling series of the scissor mechanism, and the stiffness self-locking mechanism is designed to improve the system stiffness and the loading capacity of the manipulator. The driving source is arranged in the base part to realize two degrees of freedom rotation of the manipulator. According to the needs of the task, a two degree of freedom platform is built to realize the two degree of freedom movement. Through the topology optimization of each joint shape, the weight of the structure is reduced, the lightweight design requirements are achieved, and the large expansion ratio deformation of the continuous manipulator of 400% is realized. Secondly, the kinematics model of continuous manipulator is established and verified by visual simulation. The relationship between the joint parameters and the end position of the manipulator is analyzed, and the kinematics model of the joint is obtained by D-H algorithm through discretization. Based on the kinematics calculation of the manipulator, the visual simulation platform of the manipulator is built to monitor the parameters of each joint of the manipulator in real time, which provides a reference for the precise control and experimental research of the manipulator. Then, the end error of the manipulator is analyzed. The whole manipulator is discretized, and the error model of each element is obtained by the error matrix method, and the influence of bar machining error, clearance error and other factors on the element error is obtained. The overall error model is built based on the micro displacement synthesis method, and the static error analysis of the manipulator end positioning error is completed, and the comprehensive error is obtained. The input parameters of the manipulator are compensated by the component fitting function. Based on the dynamic equation, considering the error caused by the flexible deformation of the link in the process of motion, the rigid flexible coupling model of the model is established, and the influence of the flexible deformation of the link on the end position error of the manipulator is obtained, and the model is simulated and verified by the analysis of the virtual prototype model. Finally, the experimental platform of the manipulator prototype is built and the verification experiment is carried out. It includes the design of the whole control system of the manipulator, the writing of the drive and control program, and the realization of the design of the simulation control platform of the manipulator. Complete the prototype assembly, build the test platform and carry out the precision test experiment, collect the experimental data in the experimental process, and compare with the theoretical simulation results and software simulation results. The experimental results verify the correctness of the error model and improve the positioning accuracy of the manipulator.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/28968
Collection空间自动化技术研究室
Affiliation中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
谢磊超. 大伸缩比连续型机械臂构型研究与精度分析[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2021.
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