A dynamic mathematical model was developed for the simulation and control of cement rotary kilns. The model consists of a set of nonlinear partial differential equations, and represents the material and energy balances in the kiln. Based on some logical assumptions, the model does not only consider the reaction mechanisms but also reduces the complexity of computer simulation. The steady-state simulation shows that the behavior of the model is agreement with the results presented in the literature. Then several disturbances in the manipulated variables were tested and the dynamic response was analyzed. The good performance exhibited by the dynamic model makes it suitable for simulation and control studies as well as for optimization and design.